Abd al-Malik Ibn Marwan was the fifth Umayyad Caliph. He was born in Madina, Hejaz. Abd al-Malik was a well-educated man and capable ruler who was able to solve many political problems that impeded his rule.
The Arab historian and philosopher stated that Abd al-Malik ibn Marwan was one of the greatest Arab and Muslim Caliphs. He followed in the footsteps of `Umar ibn al-Khattab, the Commander of the Believers, in regulating state affairs".
Abd al-Malik was also the patron of monumental architecture, and the Dome of the Rock in Jerusalem was completed during his reign.
It was under his leadership that the official language changed from Greek and Pahlavi to Arabic. He introduced the first distinctly Islamic coinage. In contrast with older Muslim coins, which were based on Byzantine models, Abd al-Malik’s coins were devoid of pictorial images and included Qur’anic phrases instead. After this, the style became predominant on Islamic coins.
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