Marwan II was the fourteenth and last caliph of the Umayyad Caliphate reigning from 744 until he was killed in 750. Much of his reign was dominated by the Third Muslim Civil War, and he was the last Umayyad ruler to rule the united Caliphate before the Abbasid Revolution toppled the Umayyad dynasty.
Marwan ibn Muhammad was a member of the Marwanid household of the Umayyad Caliphate. The grandson of Marwan I, Marwan II was governor of Armenia and other territories for 12 years, gaining military experience which later led him to reorganize the Islamic army.
Ascending to the throne in 744, he completed the reconquest of Syria by 746. However, the ?Abbasid rebellion broke out in 747, and a combined force of ?Abbasids, Persians, Iraqis, and Shi?ites decisively defeated the Umayyad army at the Battle of the Great Zab River in 750.
He was killed while fleeing the forces of Abu al-?Abbas as-Saffah, the first caliph of the ?Abbasid dynasty. The subsequent death of Marw?n II marked the end of the Umayyad dynasty.
His silver Dirham depicts the Kalima on the obverse face and King’s name and title on the reverse side. Image Source: Wikipdeia.org