Republic Day in Turkey is celebrated on October 29. It commemorates the proclamation of the Republic of Turkey in 1923. Following the defeat of the Ottoman Empire in the First World War, the Turkish War of Independence began. The independence struggle was led by Mustafa Kemal Ataturk who is regarded as the founder of modern Turkey and the Father of the Nation.
Turkey effectively became a republic in 1920, when Ataturk established the Grand National Assembly of Turkey. However, the new parliament was not recognized by the Ottoman leaders. The war ended in 1923 with the signing of the Treaty of Lausanne that recognized Ataturk's government. On October 29, 1923, Ataturk officially proclaimed the Republic of Turkey and became its first president.
In the year 1999, the Bank of Turkey issued a 10,000,000 Lira banknote which depicts President Kamel Ataturk at the left centre along with a square security device in gold at right. The reverse depicts World map of 1513 by Piri Reis and a ship on the right.
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