Mahmud II was an Ottoman sultan whose westernizing reforms helped to consolidate the Ottoman Empire despite defeats in wars and losses of territory. He ruled the Empire from 1808 until his death in 1839.
His reign is recognized for the extensive administrative, military, and fiscal reforms. Often described as "Peter the Great of Turkey", Mahmud II is the last sultan who used his political (non-judgmental) execution authority.
This sure altin was issued during Sultan Mahmud's 16th year in office. It weighs 1.6 grams and bears a Tughra on the obverse, an artful calligraphic symbol containing the name and title of the sultan and his father. The script to the right of the Thugra reads "'adli," "the Righteous." The reverse indicates the mint of Dar al-khilafat al-Aliya for Constantinople, the year of Mahmud's ascension to the throne and the year of his reign.
Image Source: www.moneymuseum.com