The Fatimid Caliphate was an Ismaili Shia caliphate. Ubayd Allah al-Mahdi Billah, who claimed descended from Muhammad’s daughter, Fatima declared the title of Caliph in 909 and founded the Fatimid dynasty.
Fatimid creates a separate line of caliphs in North Africa. They were originally based in Ifriqiya of Africa (Tunisia) and later extended their rule across Morocco, Algeria, Libya, Maghreb, Sicily, the Levant and the Hejaz. Following the establishment of their rule in Ifriqiya, Fatimid’s next objective was Egypt, the gateway to the Levant and Iraq.
On 24th January 914 Fatimid launched an expedition against Egypt. The first invasion took place under the leadership of Fatimid heir-apparent al-Qa'im bi-Amr Allah. He captured the Cyrenaica, Alexandria and the Fayyum Oasis, but failed to take Fustat.
Represent here is a Gold Dinar of al-Qa'im bi-Amr Allah, Fatimid caliph in 934–946. As heir-apparent to his father, he led the two early Fatimid invasions of Egypt.
Finally, in 969, under the Caliph Al-Muizz, the first stage in the advance to the East was completed. Fatimid troops conquered Egypt and built Cairo, which became the capital of Empire.
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