Most ancient cities had a goddess; it was believed that these goddesses watch over and protect their respective cities. These deities often personify the cities or states which are mostly named after them. In case of Rome, it's the Goddess called Roma.
The early cast coins of Roman republic depicted Minerva, known as Athena in Greek. Both Roma and Minerva are quite similar due to the similarities in attributes. Roma first appeared on Roman coinage in 220 BC.
Roma is most often depicted on coins as a head or bust only. She is illustrated wearing a helmet as the goddess and protector of Rome. On Empire coinage, she is depicted usually in full length wearing leather armour looking like a warlike figure.
On some denomination, she is shown holding a shield or leaning on a chair and brandishing a spear. She is also shown wearing a victory wreath and holding a sword or statuette of Nike, the goddess of Victory.
The identification of Goddess Roma on coins is often done by a legend ‘Roma’ on the coins. The above-shown coins are Denarius and Victoriatus denomination of Roman Republic. Her image also appears on the base of the column of Antoninus Pius.
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