Richard, I was King of England from 1189 until his death. He was the third of five sons of King Henry II of England and Duchess Eleanor of Aquitaine. He was born in England, where he spent his childhood; before becoming king, however, he lived most of his adult life in the Duchy of Aquitaine, in the southwest of France. Most of his life as king was spent on Crusade, in captivity, or actively defending his lands in France.
As king, Richard's chief ambition was to join the Third Crusade, prompted by Saladin's capture of Jerusalem in 1187. He was a central Christian commander during the Third Crusade, leading the campaign after the departure of Philip II of France and achieving considerable victories against his Muslim counterpart, Saladin, although he did not retake Jerusalem from Saladin.
Richard is known as Richard Quor de Lion or Richard the Lionheart because of his reputation as a great military leader and warrior. He is an enduring iconic figure both in England and in France. Depicted here is a silver denier of Richard. This coin was issued from Poitou mint it depicts cross Pattee on its obverse face.
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