During 6th Century B.C, Matsya Janapada was one of the sixteen Mahajanapadas. In Sanskrit, the word Matsya is known as ‘Fish’. Today it is modern part of central Rajasthan. The people of Matsya Janapada are also associated with Surasena (Uttar Pradesh) was also an ancient kingdom of India.
The capital of Matsya Janapada was Viratanagari, present-day Bairat. The name Viratnagari is kept after a founder of this kingdom, King Virata. The reference of Matsya Janapada is found in the Buddhist text, Anguttara Nikaya. However, no information is found about the link between these two kingdoms except in the Buddhist Pali literature.
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