Philip IV of Spain

08 Apr 2021  Thu

Philip IV of Spain was King of Spain reigning from 1621 to his death and king of Portugal from 1621 to 1640, during the decline of Spain as a great world power. He is remembered for his patronage of the arts, including such artists as Diego Velazquez, and his rule over Spain during the Thirty Years' War.

He was born in the Royal Palace of Valladolid to Philip III and his wife Margaret of Austria. Philip IV's reign, after a few years of inconclusive successes, was characterized by political and military decay and adversity. He has been held responsible for the decline of Spain, which was mainly due to organic causes largely beyond the control of any one ruler.

By the time of his death, the Spanish Empire had reached approximately 12.2 million square kilometres (4.7 million square miles) in the area but in other aspects was in decline.

Depicted here is a Spanish Netherlands, gold sovereign or 'Lion d'Or, struck 1633 in Tournai under King Philip IV of Spain. The obverse of a coin depicts crowned lion brandishing a sword, 1633. The reverse of a coin represents crowned shield of Philip IV within the Golden Fleece collar.

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