Patiala princely state was the largest, wealthiest and the most populated state of Phulkian, Punjab. The rulers claimed their origin from the Bhatti family of Jaisalmer, Jaisal. It lies in the eastern plains of the Punjab which was a part of Indo-Gangetic Plain West. It also comprised of a portion of the Shimla hills and the Narnaul.
Baba Ala Singh established Patiala state in 1763. He laid the foundation of Qila Mubarak fort. In the third Battle of Panipat, Marathas were defeated by the Afghans in 1761. Hereafter, the rulers of Patiala began to acquire advantage of royalty. He was succeeded by his grandson Amar Singh and he received the title of Raja-I-Rajaan. He was permitted to strike coins too. Patiala rulers joined hands with the British against Ranjit Singh in 1808. Thereafter, Patiala came under subsidiary alliance system.
Next important ruler was Mahendra Singh who was a minor at the time of succession. He worked for social causes by funding colleges, constructing new canals and by providing relief funds to famine-draught stricken areas. He was appointed as a ‘Knight Grand Commander of the Order of the Star of India’ in 1870. The famous Mohindra Government College was established during his reign and was named after him too. He was succeeded by his son, Rajinder Singh.
Rajinder Singh was awarded with the Grand Cross of the Star of India by the British. He established establishments like a women’s hospital, an orphanage and a training institute for soldiers. He was the first man to own a car and an aircraft. He died in an accident while riding. The British called him ‘an Indian blood with English taste’. He played polo, cricket, field hockey and English billiards. He had 365 wives. He was succeeded by Bhupendra Singh.