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Mewar

Mewar state was also known as Udaipur state. The Mewar kingdom was established around 530 AD. Chittorgarh, capital of Mewar was conquered by the Mughal Emperor Akhbar in 1568. Thereafter, it remained under Mughals for the next 150 years. It was ruled by several dynasties of Mori, Guhilot and Sisodia. The rulers of Mewar used the title “Maharana”. The state includes present day districts of Bhilwara, Chittorgarh, Rajsamand, Udaipur, Pirawa Tehsil District Jhalawar of Rajasthan, Neemuch, Mandsaur of Madhya Pradesh and some regions of Gujarat. Geographically, it lies between Aravali Range to the northwest, Ajmer to the north, Gujarat and the Vagad region of Rajasthan to the south, the Malwa region of Madhya Pradesh state to the southeast and the Hadoti region of Rajasthan to the east.

The chief vassal territories of Mewar were Chani, Jawas, Jura, Madri, Oghna, Panarwa, Para, Patia, Sarwan and Thana. The Maharana claimed their descent from Kusa, the elder son of Ram. It is said that they never gave their daughter for marriage to any Muslim ruler. The chief of Siladitya was killed by the invaders and was succeeded by his son, Gohaditya. He ruled in Idar in south west of Mewar and from him, the clan took the name of Gohelot or Gahlot. The sixth chief, Mahendraji II or Bappa left his capital at Nagda which was situated in the north of Udaipur city. Later, he left his territory to seek his fortune at Chitor, where Raja Man Singh of the Mori clan of Rajut was ruling. Then, he led the Chitor forces against the Muslim invaders on their first invasion near Sind, and successfully defeated and expelled them. He ousted Man Singh in 734 and ruled the territory, taking the title of Rawal.

In the 7th century, Gahlot dynasty of the Mewar supported Parthians and Chauhans against the Arab invasion. During Karan Singh I’s reign, Mewar was invaded by Mokal Singh and Parihar Rana of Mandor. Karan Singh sent his eldest son, Mahup, against the invader, and on his failure, entrusted the task to a younger son, Rahup, who speedily defeated Parihar and brought him back to prison. Therefore, Rahup received the title of Rana. Mahup and Rahup established their rule in Dungarpur and Sisdoia villages. Thus, Rahup was the first Rana of Mewar and it was he who changed the name of his clan from Gahlot to Sesodia. The next six chiefs ruled for very brief periods, and all died in attempts to regain Chitor. The fort was recovered by Rana Bhuvan Singh, but was almost immediately after retaken by Muhammad bin Tughlak towards the middle of the fourteenth century when Lakshman Singh was Rana. The latter and seven of his sons were killed during the siege, and the government of the fort and neighbouring country was made over to Maldeo, the Chauhan chief of Jalor in Marwar. Rana Hamir Singh I, second in succession to Lakshman Singh prepared to recapture Chitor, and by marrying the daughter of Maldeo, was not long in attaining his objective. Muhammad bin Tughlak brought a large army to recover the fortress, but was defeated and taken prisoner at Singoli, close to the eastern border of Mewar, and was not liberated till he paid a large ransom of 50 lakhs rupees and 100 elephants, and several districts. Hamir Singh died in 1364, and during the next century and a half the arms of Mewar were successful and the State prospered. In the time of Rana Laksh Singh or Lakha (1382-97), lead and silver mines were discovered at Jawar and temples, palaces, reservoir and lakes were constructed.

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