Delhi Sultan - Mamluk (Slave Dynasty)
Muslim conquests in India began with the invasion of Muhammad bin Qasim. However, the effects were not fully felt till Muhammad bin Sam invaded the north-western region of India. Muhammad bin Sam, popularly known as Muhammad of Ghor, appointed Qutbuddin Aibak as the governor of his territories in India.
Some of the strongest rulers in Mamluk history include Aibak, Iltutmish, Raziya, and Balban.
Aibak and his successors conquered Delhi and most of the North Indian Territory surrounding it and established the Delhi Sultanate. Qutbuddin ruled the sultanate from Lahore; however, the capital was shifted to Delhi by his successor Iltutmish. Iltutmish, an able ruler, consolidated the rule of the Mamluks, something Aibak was unable to achieve in the short span of four years that he ruled. Iltutmish is regarded as the true founder of the Delhi Sultanate for this reason.
With the rule of the Mamluks, the face of India was set to change. Art, Architecture and Literature came under Arabic and Persian influence which highlighted the culture of the Muslims. Muslim influence seeped into the population and saw a number of mosques, tombs; paintings and prose and poetry compositions come up in the kingdom. One of the first Islamic structures to be built in India was the Qutb Minar in Mohali. Muslim rule also saw a number of conversions among the native population along with the Jiziya tax levied on the non-Muslim communities.
With the monarchs consolidating their rule and stabilising the economy of their kingdom, a sound currency system was established. Silver tankas and Billon jitals were used by the common people for daily transactions.
The Mamluk Sultanate was first among five dynasties to rule from Delhi before the Mughals invaded and captured the kingdom. The rulers left behind rich artistic, architectural and literary treasures which showcase the culture of the Sultanate.