The Sultanate of Gujarat was established in 1407 CE by Zafar Khan who was appointed governor of the region by the Delhi Sultan, Muhammad bin Tughluq. His grandson, and successor, Ahmad Shah, established a new capital at the city of Ahmedabad which he built along the banks of the river, Sabarmati in 1411 CE. Ahmad Shah fended off an attack by Sultan Hoshang Shah of Malwa. Hoshang invaded again in 1417 CE with Nasir Khan of Khandesh, and managed to occupy the towns of Sultanpur and Nandurbar. They were later defeated by Ahmad Shah who later led four expeditions into Malwa.
Mahmud Shah I, popularly known as Mahmud Begarha, was the most prominent ruler of the dynasty. He founded the town of Mahemdabad on the banks of the river, Vatrak. He also captured the forts of Pavagadh and Junagadh, hence, earning the nickname of Begarha. Mahmud Shah transferred his capital to Champaner which he rebuilt at the foot of Pavagadh. Under his rule, the territories of the Sultanate reached its maximum. He also captured the island city of Bombay from the native kolis who were vassals of the Bahmani Sultans.
The history of Gujarat Sultan is evident in their architecture. Architectural monuments such as Jama Masjid and Teen Darwaza at Ahmedabad belong to the period of the Gujarat Sultans. Mahmud Begarha fortified the towns of Junagadh and Chamapaner. The Champaner-Pavagadh Archaeological Park houses many masjids built by the Gujarat Sultans, including a Customs House structure.
Trade via sea was an important aspect of the Sultanate's economy. At least forty known ports were located along the coast of the kingdom. The Sultans issues coins of various denominations in Gold, Silver and Copper.