Alfonso X the Wise was king of Castile and Leon from 1252 to 1284. Alfonso’s father, Ferdinand III, conquered Andalusia and imposed tribute on the remaining Muslim states in Spain—Murcia, and Granada. His mother, Beatrice, was the granddaughter of the Holy Roman Emperor Frederick I. Alfonso, already known as a scholar, became king on 1st June, 1252.
He had many scholars in his traveling court, and he was an active participant in their writing and editing. Some were experts on Roman law, which Alfonso hoped to make the basis of a uniform code for his lands. Jews, Muslims, and Christians had prominent roles in his court.
He fought a successful war with Portugal, but a less successful one with Granada. The end of his reign was marred by a civil war with his eldest surviving son, the future Sancho IV, which continued after his death. Depicted here is an extremely rare gold Morabetino / Maravedi (Dinar) issued under his reign from Seville mint.
Image Source: Heritage Auctions