Roots of Awadh history can be traced backed to the ancient kingdom of Kosala with Ayodhya as its capital. As per one of the most popular and followed version of Ramayan, Awadh was the kingdom of Rama. This region was ruled by different dynasties over the years namely Delhi Sultanate, Sharqi Sultanate, Mughal Empire, East India Company and the British. Sharqi Sultanate of Jaunpur ruled Awadh for eighty four years. It was made a part of the Mughal Empire by Emperor Humayun in 1555 AD.
Awadh was granted to Sheikh Abdul Rahim by Emperor Jahangir. Sheikh Abdul Rahim built Machchi bhawan which later became the seat of power from where his descendants controlled the subha.
In 1722 AD, the Mughal Emperor appointed Saadat Khan as Nawab of Awadh and he established his capital at Faizabad. The fourth Nawab shifted the capital city from Faizabad to Lucknow. Under the Nawabs, architecture, music and dance flourished. Lucknow city became the cultural capital of not only Awadh but also of entire North India.
Nawabs were responsible for contributing syncreticcomposite culture which came to be known as Ganga-Jamuni Tahzeeb. At the time of Akbar, his whole empire was divided into 12 subhas or provinces and Awadh was one of the subhas. Further subhas was divided into five sarkars, which were further divided into mahals and dasturs. In early modern period, Lucknow was one of the important centers of the usurping of 1857 rebellion against British unjust. Many people participated in the independence struggle movement. Hence, Lucknow emerged as an important city.